-ip -arak -madan -mayıp -a ....a suffixes in turkish zarf fiiller verbal adverbs

Zarf-Fiiller which means Verbal Adverbs (-ip -arak -madan -mayıp -a a)

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 The task of verbal adverbs is precisely this. They are useful to say by combining 2 sentences. The suffixes ( -ip -arak -madan -mayıp -a a ) we will talk about in this lesson are added to the end of verbs and qualify the other verb in the sentence. In other words, they give us clues about how the main verb in the sentence occurs. In short, they act as adverbs, but they used to be verbs (before suffixes). They changed from verb to adverb by taking suffixes.  Thats why Turkish peaople call these words zarf fiil which means verbal adverbs.

Here’s the first thing you need to know: 1. verbs take the suffix we’re going to talk about, but 2. verbs are our “main verbs”.

1. -ip: -(y)ıp -(y)ip -(y)up -(y)üp

-ip suffix adds the meaning that 2 verbs are done or will be done “in order”. Before the 2nd verb takes place, another verb takes place. We understand that the verb that takes one of the -(y)ip suffixes has occurred before.

E.g; “Kızım ders çalışıp uyudu.” (My daughter studied and slept.) 1. verb: çalış-ıp (study), 2. verb: uyu-du (slept) We understand that the girl first studies, then sleeps.

  • verb1+(y)ip   verb2
  • If the 2nd verb has a negative suffix, although the 1st verb does not have a negative suffix, it has also a negative meaning in the 1st verb.
Example Sentences
  • Yemeğini bitirip masadan kalktı. (He finished his meal and got up from the table.)
  • Yarın işe gidip müdürüyle konuşacak. (He’s going to go to work tomorrow and talk to his manager.)
  • Arkadaşına telefon edip onu yemeğe davet etti. (He phoned his friend and invited him to dinner.)
  • Annesinden para isteyip dondurma aldı. (He/she asked his mother for money and bought ice cream.)
  • Yanımıza gelip selam vermedi. (He didn’t come and greet us.)

2. -madan -meden

It means the opposite of the previous suffix. There is again “ordering” between the 2 verbs. But this time the subject does not do the 1st verb, it does the 2nd verb directly. No action has been taken before the 2nd verb takes place. We understand that the verb that takes one of the -madan suffixes (i.e. the 1st verb) is not done, only the 2nd verb is done.

E.g; “Ders çalışmadan uyumaya gitti.” (She/He went to sleep without studying.) 1. verb: çalış -madan (without study), 2. verb: git-ti (went) The subject did not study, that is, the 1st verb did not take place; she/he only did went to sleeping thing, that is, the 2nd verb took place.

  • verb1+madan   verb2
  • If the second verb is also negative, the meaning changes. In this case, the realization of the 2nd verb depends on the 1st verb. In other words, provided that the 1st verb occurs, the 2nd verb can also occur. E.g; “Yemeğini bitirmeden sofradan kalkma.” (Don’t leave the table until you’ve finished your meal.) Here, in order to get up from the table, there is a condition that the meal must be finished first, that is, the first verb must be finished first.
Example Sentences
  • Cansel televizyonu kapatmadan uyudu. (Cansel slept without turning off the TV.)
  • Elmayı soymadan yedi. (He ate the apple without peeling it.)
  • Yemeğini bitirmeden sofradan kalktı. (He left the table without finishing his meal.)
  • Ceketini almadan evden çıktı. (He left the house without taking his coat.)
  • Kahvaltı yapmadan evden çıkmaz. (He doesn’t leave the house without has breakfast.)


3. -(y)arak -(y)erek

This suffix adds the meaning that 2 verbs are done or will be done “together, at the same time”. While the 1st verb is happening, the 2nd verb is happening at the same time. We understand that the verb that takes one of the -(y)arak suffixes also takes place at the same time as the second verb.

E.g; “Müzik dinleyerek ders çalışıyorum.” (I study by listening to music.) 1. verb: dinle-y-erek (by listening), 2. verb: çalış-ıyor-um (i’m studying). It is understood that the verb of “dinle-” (listening) which takes the suffix “-erek”, is done at the same time while studying. He/she is listening to music and working at the same time.

  • verb1+(y)arak   verb2
  • The negative version of this suffix is made with the suffixes –mayarak and –meyerek.
  • If the 2nd verb has a negative suffix, although the 1st verb does not have a negative suffix, it has a negative meaning in the 1st verb. E.g; “”Spor yaparak kilo vermedi.” (She didn’t lose weight by exercising.) The second verb “vermedi” (didn’t lose) has a negative suffix. Therefore, the word with the suffix -arak also has a negative meaning. It is understood from this that “the subject DIDN’T do sports.”
Example Sentences
  • Temizlik yaparak eğleniyorlar. (They have fun while cleaning.)
  • Soğukta oturarak ders anlatıyor. (He lectures sitting in the cold.)
  • Uzanarak ders çalışıyorum. (I study while lying down.)
  • Annesini dinlemeyerek hata ediyor. (He makes a mistake by not listening to his mother.)
  • Anneni üzerek hiçbir şeyi başaramazsın. (You can’t accomplish anything that upsets your mother.)

4. -mayıp -meyip

Although it seems like the negative of the -ip suffix you learned in the 1st place, we cannot say that it is actually the opposite. We don’t look for a “do verbs in order” like it. You have already seen the negative version (-madan -madan) in the 2nd row. Here the situation is a little different. Usually there is a choice between two verbs. The subject preferred to do the 2nd verb instead of making the 1st verb. That is, he did not prefer the verb that takes one of the -mayıp suffixes, he wanted to make the second verb.

E.g; “Hafta sonu dışarı çıkmayıp evde dinlendim.” (I did not go out on the weekend and rested at home.) 1. verb: çık-mayıp (not go), 2. verb: dinlen-di-m (i rested). Subject chose to stay at home instead of going out. We understand that he has made a choice between 2 verbs (going out and resting at  home) and that at the end of the choice he does not want to go out, he decides to stay at home.

  • verb1+mayıp   verb2
Example Sentences
  • Sinemaya gitmeyip evde televizyon seyrettik. (We didn’t go to the cinema, we watched TV at home.)
  • Emine ödev yapmayıp bilgisayarda oyun oynadı. (Emine did not do her homework and played games on the computer.)
  • Okuldan sonra otobüse binmeyip yürüdüler. (After school, they walked instead of taking the bus.)
  • Işığı mayıp karanlıkta oturdu. (He sat in the dark without turning on the light.)
  • Sabaha kadar uyumayıp ders çalıştık. (We did not sleep until the morning and studied.)

5.  -….(y)a …..(y)a  /  -….(y)e …..(y)e

The verb that takes this suffix has the meaning of “for a long time”, “continuously”, “many times”. The first verb is repeated twice here, and at the end of both repetitions it takes the suffixes -a…a or -e…e.

E.g; “Kitap okuya okuya Türkçemi geliştirdim.” (I improved my Turkish by reading book.) It seems that the subject has done a lot of reading for a long time (because of “-ya…-ya” suffix > okuya okuya) and has finally improved his Turkish.

  • verb1+….a …..a   verb2
  • The negative version of this suffix is made with the suffixes –maya….-maya  ve  –meye….-meye. E.g; “Okumaya okumaya Türkçeyi unuttum.” (I forgot Turkish because of did’t read). It seems that the work of reading has not been done for a long time.
Example Sentences
  • Okula konuşa konuşa gittik. (We went to school talking.)
  • Yüze yüze kıyıya vardım. (I reached the shore swimming.)
  • Yemek yiye yiye kilo aldım.(I gained weight by eating.)
  • Yürüye yürüye ayağım ağrıdı. (My feet hurt because of walking.)
  • Otura otura her yerim ağrıdı. (I hurt all over because of sitting.)

Verbs with opposite or similar meanings can be used together. Examples;

1. Çocuklar güle oynaya eğleniyorlar. (Children are having fun playing and laughing.)

  • Gülmek (laughing ) + oynamak (playing ) (Words with similiar meanings are used.)

2. Gide gele her yeri ezberledim. (I have memorized every place by going and coming.)

  • Gitmek (go) + gelmek (come) (Words that are opposite of each other are used.)

If these suffixes are used with “question sentences“, they can mean “contempt, ridicule, dislike“! Sample;

Giye giye bu kıyafeti mi giydin? (Did you wear this outfit?)

  • It seems that the person who made this sentence did not like the clothes of the other, belittled and mocked him/her.

All of suffixes in this lesson have more than one form. So if you still have a question that you don’t know which one to use click this lesson about vowel harmony🙂

If you have any question about any subject about -ip -arak -madan -mayıp -a a suffixes or any question about Turkish language just let me know in the comment below. Btw we also share all Turkish grammar lessons, some daily usefull tips, Turkish idioms and more about Turkish language and Turkish culture on YouTube channel! You can watch all lessons for free now! Just click here and subscribe to don’t lose our videos.  See you in another lesson!

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